If the words “and are not subject to jurisdiction in the courts of the United States or England” are “blue” and the rest becomes legally acceptable while remaining true to the intended meaning. Normal trade agreements with the government should be legally binding, as is the case with other types of trade agreements, but there may be political agreements for which this is not the case. The case of Australian Woollen Mills is a possible example (in this case, it was also found that the reflection was made). This is also what happened in the management of PNG v Leahy. A treaty is a legally binding agreement. Once an offer has been accepted, there is an agreement, but not necessarily a contract. The element that turns any agreement into a real contract is “the intention to create legal relationships.” It must be shown that the parties envisaged that the agreement should be governed by contract law. When evidence of intent is found, the agreement creates legal obligations that any offending party can be prosecuted. In 1919, Lord Atkin at Balfour against Balfour (where a man promised his wife to pay child support while working in Ceylon) said there was no “intention to be legally bound” while the woman relied on payments. The judge found that agreements between spouses would generally not be legally enforceable: when assessing each case, the courts applied certain presumptions to different types of contracts; As a result, it was generally considered that national or social contracts had not been entered into with the intention of establishing legal relationships and it was considered that the trade agreements had such an intention. However, the High Court of Australia recently indicated that conjecture in determining intent should not be taken into account – in any event, the intent must be demonstrated without the assistance of such presumptions. Although conjecture is no longer used, in reality, in most national or social agreements, the parties generally do not intend to forge legal ties, at least if the agreement is reached when relations are harmonious. As a result, an applicant is likely to face an increasing struggle that proves his intent in such cases.
In the civil system, the concept of intent to create legal relations is closely linked to the “theory of the will” of contracts, as developed by the German jurist Friedrich Carl von Savigny during the 19th century.  In the 19th century, the fact that contracts were based on a meeting of minds between two or more parties and that their mutual agreement on an agreement or their intention to enter into contracts was of the utmost importance.